Early Literacy Research Library (ELRL) - Article

Cognitive Home Environment of Infants and Preschoolers: A Study From a Hospital Setting

Canaloglu, S.K., Dogan, D.G., Buyukavci, M.A., Arslan, F.N. (2021) Cognitive Home Environment of Infants, Toddlers and Preschoolers: A Study from a Hospital Setting. Annals of Medical Research, 28(11), 1986–1991.,

Access: FREE/Open Access

Publication year


study description

Interview study.

core topic(s)

Early Literacy

Population Characteristics

Infant/Newborn , International , Medical Conditions and Disabilities , Toddler/Preschool

Exposures, Outcomes, Other

Child Development (general) , Home Language/Literacy/Learning Environment


The purpose of this study was to determine the Cognitive Home Environment (CHE) of young children who apply to the hospital for various reasons.



outcomes evaluated

Cognitive home environment (CHE).


The study was carried out in 2017 April - November at Inonu University, Developmental Pediatrics Unit, in Malatya, Turkey.


In total 121 mothers participated. CHE was measured by The StimQ – (Infant, Toddler and Preschool) Home Environment Assessment Tools and sociodemographic characteristics of the families were noted.

sample size

n=121 (mothers)


Measure of Cognitive Home Environment: 4 subscales of the StimQ (with some changes made for easier understanding and adapting to our culture)

    1. Availability of Learning Materials (ALM) assesses provision of developmentally appropriate toys.
    2. READ assesses shared reading activities (frequency of reading activities, number of books in the home, and diversity of content of books shared with the child).
    3. Parental Involvement in Developmental Advance (PIDA) assesses the frequency and quality of teaching activities parents engage in with their children.
    4. Parental Verbal Responsivity (PVR) assesses verbal interactions between parents and their children.


Averages of total StimQ scores were lowest in Infant Group (IG) with 13.7 points out of 43; 15.9 points out of 39 in Toddler Group (TG); 27.78 points out of 49 in Preschool Group (PG). There was a significant difference in the Total StimQ scores of mothers with high level of education in Toddler (p=.005) and Preschool (p=.000) groups. Looking at children's' books increased with age. Only 15% of the mothers in the IG, 32.5% in the TG, and 90% in the PG were looking at children's books with their children.


The CHE of young children is not enough to serve for optimal development, especially the infants. High maternal education is effects CHE positively. Applying STIMQ can be a good opportunity to explore CHE of children in hospital settings.


The limitation of this study was that it was conducted in only one center. The strength of the study is that the entire assessment tool was applied to all three groups covered by StimQ in a hospital setting in a low-income country. To the best of our knowledge, researches using StimQ so far has been studied in specific age groups and specific subscales.