Link to full text: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/article-abstract/2777307
Access: Institutional Access
core topic(s)Early Literacy
Population CharacteristicsInfant/Newborn , Kindergarten , Toddler/Preschool
Exposures, Outcomes, OtherBrain/Neurocognitive , Home Language/Literacy/Learning Environment , Screening and Tools
objectivesLiteracy has been described as an important social determinant of health. Its components emerge in infancy and are dependent on genetic, medical, and environmental factors. The American Academy of Pediatrics advocates a substantial role for pediatricians in literacy promotion, developmental surveillance, and school readiness to promote cognitive, relational, and brain development. Many children, especially those from minority and underserved households, enter kindergarten unprepared to learn to read and subsequently have difficulty in school.
exposureEmergent literacy evidence.
outcomes evaluatedEcobiodevelopmental model.
methodsThis review involved a literature search via PubMed and Google Scholar using a thematic approach, with search terms filtered by age (<6 years). Manual searches of the references of selected articles, reviews, meta-analyses, and practice guidelines were also performed. Selected articles were mutually agreed on by the authors. Emphasis was given to the selection of meta-analyses, review articles, and information of interest to a general medical (pediatric) readership. Search terms included MRI, fMRI, DTI, emergent literacy, reading development, preschool, home literacy environment, and reading difficulties (additional information and search terms are available in the eMethods in the Supplement).
resultsEmergent literacy is a developmental process beginning in infancy. Component skills are supported by brain regions that must be adequately stimulated and integrated to form a functional reading network. Trajectories are associated with genetic, medical, and environmental factors, notably the home literacy environment, which is defined as resources, motivation, and stimulation that encourage the literacy development process. Eco-biodevelopmental models are advocated by the American Academy of Pediatrics, and these models offer insights into the neurobiological processes associated with environmental factors and the ways in which these processes may be addressed to improve outcomes. Emergent literacy is well suited for such a model, particularly because the mechanisms underlying component skills are elucidated. In addition to cognitive-behavioral benefits, the association of home literacy environment with the developing brain before kindergarten has recently been described via neuroimaging. Rather than a passive approach, which may subject the child to stress and engender negative attitudes, early literacy screening and interventions that are administered by pediatric practitioners can help identify potential reading difficulties, address risk factors during a period when neural plasticity is high, and improve outcomes.
conclusionsNeuroimaging and behavioral evidence inform an eco-biodevelopmental model of emergent literacy that is associated with genetic, medical, and home literacy environmental factors before kindergarten, a time of rapid brain development. This framework is consistent with recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics and provides insights to help identify risk factors and signs of potential reading difficulties, tailor guidance, and provide direction for future research.