Download the full text: Munzer_2019_Differences in parent-toddler interactions with electronic versus print books
study descriptionExperimental, laboratory-based study.
core topic(s)Shared Reading
Exposures, Outcomes, OtherLanguage and Literacy Development , Parent-Child Relationships/Interactions , Social-Emotional , Technology and Digital/Screen-Based Media
metric(s)MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (MB-CDI)
Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA)
objectivesWe examined parent-toddler verbal and nonverbal interactions when reading electronic versus print books.
exposurePrint and electronic books.
outcomes evaluatedParent-toddler verbal and non-verbal interactions.
settingParticipants recruited from the University of Michigan online research registry (UMhealthresearch.org) and community-based settings, including pediatric offices, child care centers, and community centers.
methodsWe conducted a videotaped, laboratory-based, counterbalanced study of 37 parent-toddler dyads reading on 3 book formats (enhanced electronic [sound effects and/or animation], basic electronic, and print). We coded verbalizations in 10-second intervals for parents (dialogic, nondialogic, text reading, format related, negative format-related directives, and off task) and children (book related, negative, and off task). Shared positive affect and collaborative book reading were coded on a scale of 1 to 5 (5 = high). Proc Genmod and Proc Mixed analyzed within-subjects variance by book format.
sample sizen=37 (parent-toddler dyads)
Measure of Potential Covariates: parent surveys including demographic information (parent age, sex, educational attainment, household income, race and/or ethnicity, relationship to child, and marital status; child’s age, sex, ethnicity, and prematurity).
Measure of Language Development: MacArthur-Bates Communicative Developmental Inventory (CDI) short form (total words produced accounted for age).
Measure of Social-Emotional Development: Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA).
Measure of Digital Media Use: standardized questions assessed the frequency of home child digital media use (including tablet, smartphone, and electronic-book usage) and parental mediation strategies (instructive, restrictive, and coviewing).