core topic(s)Early Literacy , Shared Reading
Population CharacteristicsInternational , Race, Ethnicity, and Culture , Toddler/Preschool
Exposures, Outcomes, OtherLanguage and Literacy Development , Parent Behaviors and Skills , Parent Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs , Parent-Child Relationships/Interactions , Technology and Digital/Screen-Based Media
metric(s)Parent Reading Belief Inventory (PRBI)
MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (MB-CDI)
objectivesThis study aimed to analyze the contribution of mothers' home literacy beliefs and practices and the quantity and quality of screen media exposure on Argentinean toddler's language. In addition, we considered parent–child joint engagement, as well as adult scaffolding behaviors during the use of electronic devices.
exposureHome Literacy, Screen Exposure, and Media Engagement
outcomes evaluatedEarly language outcomes
settingRecruited from social networks, using non-probabilistic and intentional sampling methods...Most of the children's mothers (98.23%) and fathers (95.69%) had Argentine nationality, the rest having foreign nationality, such as: Chilean, Uruguayan, Mexican, Venezuelan, Bolivian, Peruvian, Paraguayan and Spanish.
methodsA total of 465 mothers of 18–36 months old children completed an online survey including: the MacArthur Bates CDI, home literacy, screen exposure, joint engagement and scaffolding questionnaires.
sample sizen=465 (mothers)
Measure of Parent Education Level: The Permanent Household Survey (INDEC)
Measure of Child Daycare Experiences: information from INDEC about infant’s attendance at daycare, including whether they attended early childhood educational centres (Yes/No), the number of hours they attended, the number of teachers and classmates in their classroom and at what age they began to attend.
Measure of Home Literacy Practices and Beliefs: practices measured through a series of likert scale questions and beliefs through the Parent Belief Reading Scale (PRBI)
Measure of Child Screen Exposure: questions regarding the amount of time of exposure to different devices (i.e. TV, Cell phone, Computer and Tablet) and type of activities with them (i.e. watch videos, use apps or video games, or read books alone or with an adult)
Measure of Joint Media Engagement: questions about the extent to which adults use media with the child and the extent to which adults talk to the child about media via questions about co-viewing, distracted co-viewing, conversation during media use, and discussion after media use
Measure of Self-Reported Scaffolding: 12 items that assessed parents verbal scaffolds (e.g. ‘asking questions about what you see/hear or how an app or device is used’), and 11 items that assessed parents physical scaffolds (e.g. ‘Hold and operate the device for him/her’)
Measure of Children’s Linguistic Development: second part of the McArthur Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) adapted to the Argentine population
Measure of Lexical Density: measures word use including a vocabulary list of 23 semantic categories (e.g. animals, food, objects, clothes, toys, actions) with a total of 699 items (e.g. dog, cake, tree, shirt, crayons and run)
Measure of Sentence Use: five questions asked about the way in which the infant uses language, including about evocation of past and future events, places or people who are not present and symbolic competence (detaching language from its immediate context)