study descriptionSecondary analysis of a single-blind cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT).
core topic(s)Shared Reading
Population CharacteristicsInternational , Poverty/Low-Income , Toddler/Preschool , Urban
Exposures, Outcomes, OtherChild Behaviors and Skills , Home Language/Literacy/Learning Environment , Language and Literacy Development , Libraries and Public Resources , Parent-Child Relationships/Interactions , Play , Programs and Interventions (other) , Universidade do Bebê
metric(s)Adult-Child Interactive Reading Inventory (ACIRI)
StimQ Cognitive Home Environment Questionnaire (StimQ)
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)
objectivesThis study investigated: (1) whether parent literacy is associated with parent–child reading aloud interactions, the overall cognitive home environment, and child language and cognitive outcomes; and (2) whether impacts of a toddler/preschool reading aloud program differ depending on parent literacy among low-income families in northern Brazil.
exposureUniversidade do Bebê (UBB).
outcomes evaluatedShared reading, cognitive home environment, and child language/cognitive outcomes.
settingLow-income neighborhoods in Boa Vista, a medium-sized city in northern Brazil with a high poverty rate.
methodsWe performed a secondary analysis of a single-blind cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a parenting intervention (Universidade do Bebê [UBB]) implemented in educational childcare centers in Boa Vista, Brazil. UBB consisted of: (1) a lending library in which children’s books were borrowed weekly; and (2) monthly parent workshops focused on reading aloud. Control families received usual care without the reading aloud program...Parents and children were evaluated at baseline/enrollment and approximately 6–9 months later. Measures: (1) Predictor/moderator: parent literacy; (2) Parent outcomes: parent–child interaction during shared storybook reading; cognitive home environment; (3) Child outcomes: expressive and receptive vocabulary; IQ; working memory and short-term phonological memory. Analyses accounted for baseline performance, sociodemographics, and clustering within centers and sites.
sample sizen=506 (dyads, total); n=279 (dyads, intervention); n=287 (dyads, control)
Measure of Parent Literacy: The Cloze test, validated for Brazilian Portuguese, was used to evaluate parent reading comprehension at follow-up only.
Measure of Parent-Child Interactive Reading: The Adult/Child Interactive Reading Inventory (ACIRI) consisting of observation of parent-child interactions behaviors real-time coded during shared storybook reading.
Measure of Cognitive Home Environment: StimQ, a structured interview with the caregiver, was used to assess parent–child interactions in play, shared reading, and daily routines. Parent interview included three subscales:
- READ subscale assessed frequency and quality of reading interactions.
- Parental Verbal Responsivity (PVR) assessed caregiver-child verbal interactions.
- Parent Involvement in Developmental Advance (PIDA) assessed caregiver teaching and play activities.
Measure of Child Outcomes:
- Child Expressive Vocabulary: Teste Infantil de Nomeação, a Brazilian adaptation of the Boston Naming Test (BNT).
- Child Receptive Vocabulary: Teste de Vocabulário por Imagens Peabody (TVIP), a Brazilian adaptation of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test.
- Child IQ: Two subscales, Categories and Situations, from the Brazilian version of the Snijders-Oomen nonverbal intelligence test (SON-R).
- Child Working Memory: Teste Infantil de Memória (TIMT; now called TIME-R), a non-verbal working memory task developed by Morais and Macedo (2011)
- Child Phonological Short-Term Memory: Teste de Repetição de Palavras e Pseudopalavras (TRPP) is a Brazilian validated phonological short-term memory task.
Measure of Sociodemographic and Depressive Covariates: parent interviews including child variables, family characteristics, and parental depressive symptoms assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.