study descriptionLongitudinal, cross-sectional study
core topic(s)Early Relational Health
Population CharacteristicsInfant/Newborn , Toddler/Preschool
Exposures, Outcomes, OtherHome Language/Literacy/Learning Environment , Language and Literacy Development , Parent-Child Relationships/Interactions , Technology and Digital/Screen-Based Media
objectivesTo test the independent association of adult language input, television viewing, and adult-child conversations on language acquisition among infants and toddlers.
exposureLanguage input, conversational turns, and television viewing
outcomes evaluatedInfant/toddler language acquisition
settingParents of children aged 2 to 48 months were invited to participate through advertising in local newspapers and direct-mail solicitation (English-speaking families only).
methodsTwo hundred seventy-five families of children aged 2 to 48 months who were representative of the US census were enrolled in a cross-sectional study of the home language environment and child language development (phase 1). Of these, a representative sample of 71 families continued for a longitudinal assessment over 18 months (phase 2). In the cross-sectional sample, language development scores were regressed on adult word count, television viewing, and adult child conversations, controlling for socioeconomic attributes. In the longitudinal sample, phase 2 language development scores were regressed on phase 1 language development, as well as phase 1 adult word count, television viewing, and adult-child conversations, controlling for socioeconomic attributes.
sample sizen=71 (families)
Measure of Childhood Language Development: Preschool Language Scale, Fourth Edition (PLS-4) assesses gesture, social communication, language structure, social communication, phonological awareness, attention.
Measure of Language Environment: Language Environment Analysis System (LENA) assesses adult word count, television viewing, adult-child conversations.