Early Literacy Research Library (ELRL) - Article

Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the StimQ for Use with Italian Children from Kindergartens

De Salve, R., Romanelli, S., Frontani, F., Policastro, F., Berardi, A., Valente, D., & Galeoto, G. (2023). Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the StimQ for Use with Italian Children from Kindergartens. Children, 10(1), 109.,

Access: FREE/Open Access

Download the full text: children-10-00109-v2

Publication year


study description

Validation study

core topic(s)

Early Relational Health

Population Characteristics

International , Kindergarten , Lingually Diverse , Poverty/Low-Income

Exposures, Outcomes, Other

Screening and Tools


The aim of the study was to translate, transculturally adapt, and evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the Italian version of the StimQ.

outcomes evaluated

StimQ questionnaire translated to Italian, reliability, Interrater reliability


Italian kindergartens


At the beginning of this study, we received consent from the developers of the original instrument to translate and adapt the StimQ questionnaire. For the translation and cultural adaptation of this questionnaire, we used the Principles of Good Practice for the Translation and Cultural Adaptation Process of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measures from Wild et al. Intrarater reliability was performed by administering the questionnaire after 48 h and by two different researchers.

sample size

142 children


  • StimQ translated into Italian
  • Quantitative data (round 2): Experts reviewed the 48 specific content areas emerged from round 1 and assessed the merit of each
  • Interrater reliability: Interrater reliability was assessed by using two different researchers to administer the StimQ to the participants. The subjects included in this analysis were blinded to the aim of this procedure.


The Cronbach’s alfa was excellent, considering the total score (0.82 for infants, 0.85 for toddlers, and 0.86 for preschoolers). Both analyses showed an excellent reliability for the total score and all the subscales. The intrarater reliability was 0.99 for the infant, 1 for the toddler and 0.99 for the preschooler age groups. The interrater reliability was 0.95 for the infant, 0.93 for the toddler, and 0.97 for the preschooler age groups.


The StimQ is a reliable questionnaire that could be helpful for clinicians and researchers who work with children in Italy.


This was a pilot study to determine some of the psychometric characteristics of StimQ. Construct validity should be further analysed in future studies identifying an appropriate tool for comparison. For the infant section, the sample size was more than predicted but could be considered small; however, this is a pilot, and we would increase the numerosity in the near future. Investigating the socioeconomic status of the family could be interesting to assess differences between the children development. A validated tool for the construct validity was not retrieved, for this, this analysis was not performed.